Diritti dei minori

What changes when you become an adult

Reaching the age of majority is an important milestone, because from the age of 18 one becomes an adult in all respects.
There is no intermediate or gradual step, within 24 hours the prerogatives of minors are lost, made up of limits but also of specific rights, to acquire the legal discipline of any other individual (fully capable of understanding and wanting) .
This translates into the possibility of acting completely freely, without having to submit to parental authority and deciding for oneself autonomously.
Freedom also entails a greater degree of responsibility, parents can continue to provide support and support but are no longer legally responsible than their adult children, who must learn independence from this point of view too.
In Italy, as in many other countries in the world, the age of majority is reached at 18.
It cannot be assumed that all 18-year-olds have equal maturity and responsibility, but according to the law this threshold is sufficient to require citizens to have the capacity for discernment suitable for being in society as autonomous individuals.
Here's what changes.
What changes by law when you become an adult What changes when you become an adult Civil and administrative liability Criminal liability School Marriage Work Right to vote Purchases and contracts Products prohibited for minors Alcohol and cigarettes Driving license Body modifications Inheritance and will Asset management Disability pension for total disability Allowance unique What changes when you become an adult We all know that after the age of 18 it is possible to do everything that was precluded the day before, but what changes in concrete terms according to the law? The starting point which then gives rise to rights and responsibilities is the full capacity to act, which is acquired with age.
From birth until adulthood, minors only have full legal capacity, recognized to every human being for the protection of fundamental rights (for example the right to health and education).
The capacity to act, on the other hand, concerns the ability to carry out and be the recipient of legally relevant acts, without the mediation of parents or the guardianship judge.
Minors do not have the capacity to act (unless they are emancipated and in any case limited to what is established by the judge) therefore they can only carry out certain acts defined by law.
For example, minors can only conclude habitual and low-value contracts on their own (such as purchasing a bus ticket), all others are voidable, unless they express essential needs, such as joining a political party.
Adults, however, have no limitations in this sense, unless a sentence of interdiction or incapacitation certifies their reduced or absent capacity to act (for example, due to mental illnesses).
Everything that is acquired with adulthood from a legal point of view derives from the acquisition of the ability to act, but let's see what the most relevant differences are on a practical level.
Civil and administrative liability The adult acquires civil and administrative liability, therefore he is personally liable for the offenses committed and is required to pay fines and any compensation for damages (financial and otherwise) imposed by the judge.
For minors, however, it is the parents who obligatorily bear the expenses related to their children's crimes.
Furthermore, from the age of 18, one becomes fully responsible for the debts incurred.
Criminal liability In Italian law, all individuals who have reached the age of 14 have criminal liability and are therefore punishable for the crimes committed.
For minors, however, there is a facilitated regime (for example with a reduction in sentences and the impossibility of being sentenced to life imprisonment), which is lost with age of majority.
Anyone who has turned 18, even if only a few hours ago, and commits a crime can be prosecuted like any other adult.
read also Can a minor go to prison? School Coming of age allows students to be independent also from an academic point of view, being able to justify absences and departures themselves and be responsible for their own conduct.
From the age of 18 it is also possible to freely choose whether to continue your studies or not and enroll at university.
As regards high schools, however, the regulation could provide for the right of parents to be informed – if requested – about the academic progress of their child, even if he is an adult.
Marriage Except in cases of emancipation, reserved for particular circumstances and in any case starting from the age of 16, it is possible to contract marriage only from the age of 18.
In any case, being adults it is still possible to leave home, without parents being able to prevent it.
Work Italian law also allows minors to work under certain conditions, but only with the age of majority is it possible to access any job without limitations (at least not personal data).
At the same time, those prerogatives dedicated to the work of minors are lost, for example they may be required to work at night.
read also Jobs prohibited for minors, what are they? Right to vote The transition to adulthood also establishes the right to vote, a fundamental but often underestimated transition.
Adult citizens can vote in administrative elections (municipal and regional) and in political elections limited to the Chamber of Deputies.
In addition to the right to actively vote, which is also a civic duty, the adult also gains the possibility of being elected to hold public offices, for example in local elections (but he cannot yet run for the Chambers, much less for the Presidency of the Republic ).
Purchases and contracts By acquiring full capacity to act, adults can freely and validly conclude any type of contract, from the most modest ones to the largest ones (they can also buy properties and make investments if they have the economic possibility).
Thus, the possibility of purchasing is also unlimited (except for budget limitations) whether purchasing in-store or online.
R-rated products Adults can access the world of R-rated entertainment, including games such as Lotto and bingo, R-rated cinema films and online content.
Be careful, however, when it comes to casinos.
From the age of 18 it is possible to enter, but this depends on the law of the country in which it is located.
Alcohol and cigarettes Being of age also allows you to freely purchase alcohol, cigarettes and nicotine products in general, but also legal cannabis products (with low THC content).
Driving license Adults can obtain a B driving license (and also an A1), thus being able to drive most commonly used vehicles, with some limits for the first years of obtaining the licence.
Furthermore, from the age of 18 it is also possible to take out vehicle insurance.
Body modifications Anyone aged 18 or over can freely choose whether to have a tattoo, piercing or any other type of body transformation without parental consent, including cosmetic surgery.
Inheritance and will Minors can receive inheritance, but decisions on this matter rest with the parents and the court.
With age, however, it is possible to decide independently what to do (taking on the related responsibilities, such as any inheritance debts in case of acceptance and obligations regarding the succession declaration).
Furthermore, adults can also draw up a will and dispose of their assets.
Asset management Adults are also fully responsible for the management of their assets, they can finally open a current account independently and manage their money freely.
Disability pension for total disability Adults who are totally disabled and meet the health and administrative requirements established by law can receive the civil disability pension up to the age of 67.
Single allowance Adults can continue to receive the single allowance up to the age of 21 if they attend a school or professional training course and can present the application independently.
read also Single allowance for adults 2023, guide to requirements, amounts and application

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